The 19 Critical Subsystems of Living Systems:

From: Living Systems by James Grier Miller, 1978

 

Subsystems which process Matter/Energy:

  1. Reproducer

  2. Boundary

Subsystems which process Matter/Energy:

  1. Ingestor

  2. Distributor

  3. Converter

  4. Producer

  5. Storage

  6. Extruder

  7. Motor

  8. Supporter

 

Subsystems which process Information:

  1. Input Transducer

  2. Internal Transducer

  3. Channel and Net

  4. Decoder **

  5. Associator **

  6. Memory **

  7. Decider

  8. Encoder

  9. Output Transducer

Levels at which Living Systems exist:

  • Cell
  • Organ
  • Organism
  • Group
  • Organization
  • Society
  • Supranational System

 

  **  subsystems that support modeling.  DTA